How to get a list of the indexed pages of your website?
Although not proposed for this purpose, the site: command on Google can make possible for you to get an estimate.
Here is the syntax of this command:
site:votresite.com (without space between "site" and ":" and your domain name.
Be careful, in case your website is declared in http or https; you have to take it into account.
The command also works for the images.
You can add more details by adding a directory to the command.
Website example: https://www.monsite.com/produits
In Google Search Console, it is also possible to have included the number of URLs of your sitemap in the index.
You will never get the exact number.
You can get a useful estimate through your analytics solution. Check out pages that get traffic from Google.fr for example.
The figure you get doesn't exactly correspond to the definition of the term "indexed" but it is an interesting indicator. A non-indexed page will never get traffic from search engines (except when it comes from sponsored links, of course).
Finally, it is possible to analyze the pages that have had at least one impression in the Google Search Console. This also makes possible to identify the URLs that have been visible during a search but have not been clicked on.